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Such fats are called triacyl­glycerols. They include solid animal fats, such as butter and lard, and liquid vegetable oils, such as olive, peanut, and corn oil. Glycerol is the ­three-­carbon compound that reacts with fatty acids to form fats. Fatty acids are long chains of carbon atoms with hydro-­ gen and oxygen atoms attached. The fatty acid chains sometimes include double bonds between the carbon atoms. Fats that contain no double bonds are called saturated fats, because they cannot add any hydrogen atoms.

As you will see, many of the important molecules necessary for life are also polymers. Such molecules include DNA, glycogen, and proteins. Alkynes Hydrocarbons that contain one or more ­ carbon-­to-­carbon triple bonds are called alkynes. ” Ethyne, commonly known as acetylene, is the simplest alkyne. It consists of two carbon atoms with a triple bond between them, with each carbon also bonded to one hydrogen atom. The chemical formula for ethyne is C2H2. Alkynes are less common in nature than alkenes, but some are made naturally by some plants and bacteria.

The amino acids in proteins are linked together by bonds between the amino group of one amino acid and the carboxyl group of another. These bonds are called peptide bonds. When a peptide bond forms between two amino acids, one hydrogen and one oxygen atom are lost from the carboxyl group of one amino acid and one hydrogen atom is lost from the amino group of the other amino acid. These discarded atoms become a molecule of water (H2O), leaving what is called a dipeptide, below. H O H O | || | || H2N — C — C — N — C — C — OH (+ H2O) | | | R H R´ This structure is called a dipeptide because it shows a peptide bond linking two amino acids.

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