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The inferior vena cava takes deoxygenated blood returning from the lower trunk and limbs to the right atrium. branches out from the right ventricle. Each branch takes deoxygenated blood to the lungs. The pulmonary artery is the only artery that transports deoxygenated blood. When the blood pressure in the pulmonary artery increases, the walls thicken. The blood pumped by the heart is reduced. WIDENING VESSELS Chest pains could be a warning sign that the cardiac muscle is not receiving enough blood to keep up with the demands of the work it is doing.

This disease in humans is caused by two subspecies of protists of the genus Trypanosoma: T. brucei gambiense and T. brucei rhodiense. T. brucei gambiense causes a chronic disease that develops over several years and is found mostly in central and western Africa. The disorder caused by the T. brucei rhodiense has the same syndrome but develops in weeks in countries of southern and eastern Africa. The infection in humans is caused by the bite of an insect, the tsetse fly. 1 Upon feeding, the insect injects thousands of parasites in the metacyclic trypomastigote stage, which enter the human blood.

As rheumatoid arthritis develops over time, the tissues of the eyes, skin, heart, nerves, and lungs may be affected. or more of the mineral density of the bone is lost through the degeneration of osteoporosis. WITH OSTEOPOROSIS CARTILAGE REDUCED MASS 2 BONE FRACTURE The cartilage is worn away down to the bone and breaks its surface. From this erosion, a hole appears. New blood vessels begin to grow. To fill the gap, a plug develops that is made up of fibrocartilage. BONE SYNOVIAL CAPSULE SYNOVIAL FLUID CARTILAGE 3 EXPOSED BONE The plug disappears and leaves the bone surface exposed.

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