By Kaare Christian
Modula-2 is a straightforward but strong programming language that's appropriate for a large choice of purposes. it really is in accordance with Pascal, a profitable programming language that used to be brought in 1970 through Niklaus Wirth. throughout the 1970's Pascal grew to become the main greatly taught programming language and it received reputation in technological know-how and undefined. In 1980 Dr. Wirth published the Modula-2 software ming language. Modula-2 is an evolution of Pascal. It improves at the successes of Pascal whereas including the MODULE - a device for ex urgent the kinfolk among the key components of courses. In advert dition Modula-2 comprises low-level positive factors for platforms application ming and coroutines for concurrent programming. Programming languages are very important simply because they're used to specific principles. a few programming languages are so constrained that definite rules cannot be simply expressed. for instance languages that lac okay floating element mathematics are beside the point for clinical com putations. Languages comparable to simple and Fortran that lack recur sion are incorrect for textual content processing or structures programming. occasionally a programming language is useable for a definite appli cation however it is much from excellent. a very good instance is the trouble of writing huge courses in natural Pascal. Pascal is a terrible language for big jobs since it lacks amenities for partitioning a software viii Preface 6< ; ~~~~er zero\ Sheet steel Tube /" zero (to Affix Eraser to Shaft) ~ hole wood Shaft A Lead middle determine 1. An exploded diagram. into separate items that may be constructed independently.
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Extra resources for A Guide to Modula-2
Therefore you must be extremely careful when you form expressions involving PROCEDURE calls. 1. 2. p() and Q() are PROCEDURES that return a BOOLEAN value, and they have unpredictable side effects. What simplifications can you make to the following expressions that are guaranteed not to change the meanings? 3. Here is an expression involving a PROCEDURE named Q( ) that returns a BOOLEAN value. (NOT Q(» OR Q() OR Q() How many times will Q( ) be called: a. If Q( ) always returns TRUE. b. If Q( ) always returns FALSE.
2. A set of operations that are performed each time the PROCEDURE is invoked. 3. The parameters (if any) that are passed to the PROCEDURE and the value (if any) that is returned from the PROCEDURE. • A MODULE declaration defines: 1. A group of local declarations. The variables in a MODULE are created whenever the surrounding scope of the MODULE is activated. 2. A set of operations that are performed whenever the surrounding scope of the MODULE is activated. 3. The IMPORTS and EXPORTS of the MODULE.
1. Declarations and Variables Modula-2 MODULES and PROCEDURES have two distinct parts: • The declaration part • The statement part Statements in Modula-2 (and most other languages) are used to specify a series of actions. Although the details of this process may be hard to master, the basic idea is familiar to everybody. We've all given directions to a lost motorist or outlined a solution to a tricky international issue on a social studies test. Declarations are trickier. In most languages declarations are used to define the various data elements that are used in the program.