By Peter Ladefoged
The straightforward to appreciate strategy builds at the fundamentals, starting with technical phrases required for describing speech and transcription symbols earlier than relocating directly to the phonetics of English and different languages.
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Extra info for A Course in Phonetics, Fourth edition
Middle ear infection is treated by antibiotics and painkillers. Children are very prone to otitis media because their Eustachian tubes are more horizontal and less rigid than those of adults and their immune 52 Principles of Hearing Aid Audiology systems are less well developed. Where the condition is recurrent, a sticky residue may adhere to the ossicles, inhibiting their movement and causing a hearing loss. This condition is commonly known as ‘glue ear’. Where otitis media is long-standing or repeated, or in cases of glue ear, a myringotomy may be undertaken.
It may be accelerated during pregnancy, probably due to hormonal activity. A conductive hearing loss will be present, which is greatest in the low frequencies. 4 (a)). This is known as Carhart’s notch. In later stages of otosclerosis, there may be sensorineural involvement as the bony growth invades the inner ear. 5). The operation is all done through an incision in the tympanic membrane and the working end of the piston is usually hooked around the bottom end of the incus. The operation is termed a stapedectomy.
A deep section of the middle ear, showing the mastoid antrum and the path of the facial nerve. 3 The inner ear The inner ear, known as the labyrinth because of its complicated structure, lies entirely within the temporal bone of the skull. It comprises a membranous sac filled with a clear fluid (endolymph) contained within a bony cavity. The space between the sac and the bone is also filled with fluid (perilymph). Endolymph is very similar to intracellular fluid and is therefore high in potassium and low in sodium; conversely, perilymph is similar to cerebrospinal fluid and, as with all extracellular fluid, is high in sodium and low in potassium.